Why Do Some Socialists Refuse to Support the Mass Struggle against the “Green Pass”?

Italy is shattered by a mass struggle against the introduction of Green Pass by the neoliberal Draghi government. The Green Pass makes it mandatory for all workers to be vaccinated (resp. proof of recovery or a negative test for the past 48 hours for which they have to pay themselves). If the workers do not meet these criteria, they will be sacked.

The Green Pass is a state-bonapartist instrument to force the whole population to get vaccinated, to control their health status and to make it easier for the bosses to sack the workers. It serves the expansion of the capitalist state apparatus as well as the profit interests of Big Pharma. [1]

The Green Pass is a key project of the reactionary Draghi government. This is a government representing the whole monopoly bourgeoisie of Italy which is exemplified by the remarkable fact that it is supported by nearly all parties in parliament (the populist Movimento 5 Stelle, the right-wing populist Lega, Berlusconi’s Forza Italia, the left-bourgeois Partito Democratico, as well as others).

Sinistra Italiana – a small left-wing party associated with the LINKE in Germany, SYRIZA in Greece, the ex-Stalinist parties PCF in France and PCE in Spain – split and two of its three deputies voted for the Draghi government. (By the way: This arch-opportunist party was already part of the Conte’s second government in 2019-21. So much for the “socialism” of these ex-Stalinists!)

Unsurprisingly, the Green Pass is enthusiastically supported by Confindustria – the national confederation of Italy’s monopoly capitalists – and all bourgeois institutions, from the media to the church. Shamefully, the same is true for the bureaucracy of the main reformist unions like CGIL, CISL or UIL as well as the so-called Left.

In short, Italy’s working class faces an unholy alliance of the capitalist state machinery, the bosses and the bureaucrats. It is therefore extraordinary that despite such a gigantic class enemy, significant sectors of the workers are waging a determined struggle against this authoritarian attack on their fundamental rights.

As we did already report, Italy’s port workers are about to start strike actions and blockades at nearly all ports. [2] On 11 October, a general strike took place which was organized by an alliance of militant grassroot unions – representing the workers vanguard. While the official platform (which had already been agreed some time ago) was focused on economic demands, various militant unions which organized the general strike have publicly opposed the Green Pass. Many participants of the mobilizations carried banner against this attack of the government. [3]

Fascist Attack on the CGIL’s Headquarter

On 9 October, a mass demonstration of about 100,000 people took place in Rome. During this event a small group of people (according to various reports this has been a group of fascists) attacked the headquarter of the main left-wing trade union federation CGIL.

Obviously, revolutionaries denounce such reactionary attacks. However, this incident has been cynically utilized by the Draghi government, the bosses and the trade union bureaucracy to deflect public attention from the authoritarian Green Pass attack. Draghi personally visited the national headquarters of the CGIL where the bureaucrats more than warmly welcomed him! Confindustria and even right-wing political parties all expressed their solidarity. They all mobilize for a national demonstration against fascism on 16 October where the state is called to dissolve the fascist Forza Nuova (the group which was involved in the reactionary attack on the CGIL headquarters).

It is evident that socialists must defend the reformist unions against any fascist aggression. However, this must not lead them to blindly follow the capitalist government (and the labor bureaucrats) which utilize such an event in order to confuse and demobilize the workers’ struggle against reactionary attacks on their fundamental democratic rights!

PCL, LIT-CI and IMT: Denouncing the Struggle against the Green pass as “reactionary”

Unfortunately, various left-wing organizations also fall in this trap of the ruling class. As we noted already in our above-mentioned report on the 11 October general strike, Italian pseudo-Trotskyists like the PCL and the Mandelite group denounce the struggle against the Green Pass as “reactionary”.

At this point we will not repeat our criticism. We shall only point out that the PCL leadership, in a new statement, openly denounces the strike of the port workers against the Green Pass and calls them a “rearguard”, i.e. the reactionary opposite of an vanguard! [4] What a cynical slander! The port workers are a traditional vanguard in the class struggle with a high political consciousness. Only a few months ago, this supposed “rearguard” blocked a weapons and explosives shipment destined for Israel in a show of solidarity with the Palestinian people! [5]

Sinistra Classe Rivoluzione – the Italian affiliates of Alan Woods’ IMT – also joins the capitalist media and the reformist bureaucrats in shamefully slandering the mass anger against the Green Pass. They claim that this is something associated with the petty-bourgeoisie and the lumpenproletariat. (“This measure is unleashing anger among a section of the workers (though not the majority), and especially from the petty bourgeoisie and the lumpenproletariat.”) [6] Such an approach is hardly surprising as the IMT has supported the COVID Counterrevolution since the beginning and praised the Lockdown policy of the Chinese Stalinist-capitalist regime. [7]

The Italian IMT group’s arch-opportunist adaption to reformism is also reflected in the fact that it advocates the classic social democratic call to the state to ban the fascists (“Saturday’s demonstration calls for the dissolution of all the fascist organisations. The need for this is indisputable, and we subscribe to it.”). Authentic Trotskyists, in contrast, refuse to spread such criminal illusions in the capitalist state. the fascists must be smashed but they must be smashed by the armed workers and oppressed! Leon Trotsky – a central leader of the October Revolution in 1917 – was very clear on this issue. “Our slogan is not the disarming of the fascist gangs of finance capital by finance capital’s own police. We refuse to spread the criminal illusion that a capitalist government can actually proceed to the disarming of the capitalist bands. The exploited must defend themselves against the capitalists. Arming of the proletariat, arming of the poor peasants! People’s Antifascist Militia![8]

It is no accident that the Britain-based IMT parrots the bourgeois policy of social democracy since it has opportunistically existed as a faction within reformist or even outright bourgeois parties for decades. This has shaped its policy from the beginning. These “Trotskyists”, for example, even refused to call for an end of Britain’s imperialist war against Argentina in 1982. It did so, among others, with the social-chauvinist argument that the Malvinas would belong to Britain and that would be the wish of the few settlers on this island exercising their “national self-determination”! [9]

The Partito di Alternativa Comunista – the Italian section of the LIT-CI (PSTU in Brazil) – formally opposes the Green Pass but, in effect, it agrees with the principles of the bourgeois COVID policy. [10] It treats the whole issue as one of third- or fourth-tier importance (it has not a single article on its website about this issue). Its arguments against the Green Pass are in fact a call for an even more authoritarian intervention of the state. They criticize the government and Confindustria that they would “deny the pandemic” when in fact they utilize the hysteria about the pandemic as justification for imposing the mandatory Green Pass! They go even further by claiming that the Green Pass “is also a pretext to eliminate all measures of social distancing and containing the contagion, especially in the workplace. This is why we also oppose it. But we cannot accept the positions of those who oppose the Green Pass by supporting reactionary no vax or denialist positions.[11] Likewise, they criticize that “for schools, social distancing is not mandatory but only suggested”. [12]

In summary, all these organizations fail to recognize the dangerous character of the Green Pass policy as an authoritarian, state bonapartist instrument to launch a strategic attack on the working class and the popular masses. Instead, they denounce the mass protests against the Green Pass as reactionary! Worse, they criticize the Draghi government for not launching even more drastic authoritarian measures to impose “social distancing”, i.e. to weaken and undermine the collectivity among the workers and oppressed! But in the end, this is hardly surprising as these organizations and their international affiliates have supported the Lockdown policy of the capitalist governments in the past one and a half years.

PTS/FT: Failure to Understand the Nature of the Green Pass

Sadly, Frazione Internazionalista Rivoluzionaria (FIR) – the Italian affiliate of the Fracción Trotskista (PTS in Argentina) – adapts to this reactionary trend of the centrist left. True, it does oppose the Green Pass in principle. The comrades correctly point out and criticize that “the Left … largely uncritical defends the Green Pass”. [13]

However, the comrades fail to understand the nature of the Green Pass and the policy of the ruling class behind it. The following sentences from their programmatic statement on this issue make this pretty clear. “It is in the light of this class conflict that the “heavy” adoption of the Green Pass in Italy must be seen. It is a tool that can be used, with a certain political will, to push the crisis largely onto the backs of the working class, to continue to fail to provide the needed increases in funding for public health, and to avoid having to adopt more comprehensive and structural health measures even before vaccines became available.” (Emphasis in the original)

So, the FT comrades say that the Green Pass “can” be utilized by the ruling class “with a certain political will”. No, comrades, this is confusing at best. This formulation suggests that the Green Pass introduced by a bourgeois government in the period of deep crisis of capitalism can also have a different purpose, one which would not be directed against the working class.

Comrades, this is dangerous nonsense! When a bourgeois government introduces an economic policy in a period of deep capitalist crisis, it will inevitable be a policy in the interests of the bosses and not of the workers. When a bourgeois government introduces a military policy in a period of deep capitalist crisis, it will inevitable be a policy in the interests of the ruling class and not of the workers. Why should this be different when it comes to the issue of health policy in a period of deep capitalist crisis?! As we have demonstrated in numerous works, the whole response of the ruling class to the COVID pandemic was (and could only have been) determined by political and economic interests directed against the working class and the oppressed peoples. This is why we call it the COVID Counterrevolution. [14]

The FT comrades seem to ignore that the Green Pass has been invented by the ruling class as an instrument against the workers and oppressed. It never had any other purpose and can not have any other purpose! This is why instruments like the Green Pass have been introduced by the ruling class in many countries all over the world under the pretext of the pandemic. The Stalinist-capitalist dictatorship in China was the first to do so. [15] Macron in France and Mitsotakis in Greece did something similar. Other European governments are currently discussing such restrictions. All these instruments – like the Lockdown policy – are part of a strategy of the ruling class to expand the surveillance and control of the capitalist state against the popular masses and to promote the profit interests of big corporations.

The PTS/FT in the Face of the COVID Counterrevolution

Unfortunately, the comrades of Fracción Trotskista (FT) do not understand this. This is why they, on one hand, warn that the ruling class can utilize the COVID policy – be it the Green Pass or the state of emergency / Lockdowns – and, on the other hand, they do not oppose such policy in principle.

We fear that the FT leadership fundamentally agrees with the Lockdown policy. This is why they never called for any protests against it but limited themselves to demand payment of full wages during the Lockdown periods.

Likewise, the FT agrees, in principle, with the mass vaccination campaign of the capitalist governments which first and foremost serves the interests of Big Pharma. This is why their only criticism with the capitalist mass vaccination campaign is that it is not done effectively enough and not in all countries in the world. [16]

Similarly, they share the anti-social policy of the ruling class to close schools and to isolate kids from each other. Their U.S. section has published a programmatic manifesto which demonstrates the defects of their policy. “Though the spread of the highly contagious Delta variant should lead to increased safety measures, it seems that many schools are doing the opposite. For example, the NYC Department of Education will actually be decreasing the stringency of measures to keep children safe, such as social distancing, testing, and quarantining. (…) Schools must be made safer before allowing children back to in-person classes, especially since schools appear to be driving the community spread of the Delta variant.[17] And this despite the well-know fact that the virus does not pose any serious danger for kids, that it is important for them to build up antibodies, that education is important for youth (and the society in general) and that social contacts are crucial for them.

The FT comrades also share the bourgeois policy of advocating social distancing – a dangerous instrument which undermines social cohesion in general and the class struggle in particular. “At the same time, while the general public experiences pandemic fatigue, we cannot fall into the trap of repacking stadiums and other venues as variants continue to spread. This will only prolong the pandemic and increase deaths. Getting vaccinated, wearing masks, avoiding large public events — these should be all be seen as working-class acts of solidarity to confront a pandemic that the capitalist system is unwilling to solve.[18] So distancing ourselves from each other, “avoiding large public events” (i.e. avoiding mass assemblies and demonstrations) are acts of “working class solidarity”?! No, these is the nightmare for many workers and youth and a wet dream of the bosses and politicians!

We see, the leadership of the PTS/FT is essentially ideologically tied to the capitalist COVID-19 policy. Of course, they have criticism, they point out that the capitalists combine this with profit interests, etc. But in its essential basics, the PTS/FT shares this policy. This is why they state: “Of course, we agree with the abstract concept of “safe” jobs (…) and with the need to get as many people vaccinated as possible.

It is because of such opportunist adaptation that the FT has failed from the beginning to outline any meaningful program of struggle against the COVID Counterrevolution. They were not even aware that such a counterrevolution has been taken place and never characterized the response of the ruling class to the pandemic as such!

A “Clash of Civilizations”, Really?

For the same reason, they can not advocate any serious struggle today against the Green Pass in Italy. The Italian FT comrades consider those large sectors of the population who oppose the de facto compulsory vaccination as something between reactionary and silly. “According to government data, nearly 14 million workers already have a Green Pass; those who do not include the group with the lowest rate of vaccination in the population, people 50 to 59 years of age. It is within this age group that the most open opposition to vaccination has proliferated, mostly due to fears over side effects and a belief that the vaccines are largely ineffective — a position that data refute point by point, but that has not become a big enough part of the public discourse. On top of that, the situation is exacerbated by shades of a “clash of civilizations” between “pro-vaxxers” and “anti-vaxxers.” It all gets mixed into the same cauldron with the views of the most blatant reactionaries — “Trump’s people,” who are mostly owners of small- and medium-size businesses — and segments of the most impoverished, whose distrust of institutions comes out in a form of individual populism.

Such a statement completely misses the point. One has to ask oneself rather the following: How is it possible that only about half of Italy’s population supports the Green Pass despite the fact that the bourgeois parties, media and institutions are united in the advocacy of the Green Pass and bombard the people relentlessly since many weeks with corresponding manipulative propaganda?! Does this not reflect that the popular masses instinctively oppose such a draconic attack on their rights?! And contrary to the FT statement, its is the group below the age of 34 years where resistance is strongest. [19]

Furthermore, why do the comrades not ask themselves the question why should all people get vaccinated against a virus which is a serious danger only for older people and those with a precarious immune system?! And why is it such a problem if there are people unvaccinated when those who are vaccinated are supposedly safe?! And why did countries which did impose hardly any restrictions (like Sweden and Uruguay) not have more death per capita (or even less) than countries which imposed the harshest Lockdown and social distancing regime?! [20]

No, comrades, this is not a “clash of civilizations” between enlightened and backward people. This is a vicious offensive of the ruling class all over the world against the working class and the oppressed. Surely, among those who oppose this policy are also reactionary or even fascist elements. Those who like to refer to this fact conveniently “forget” to mention that extreme right-parties in power have imposed the most draconic Lockdown policy (i.e. in India and Hungary), not to speak about various dictatorship.

Anyway, the opposition of fascists against the Green Pass is hardly an argument. Such forces like to exploit popular anger for their own purpose. Furthermore, revolutionaries derive their policy from the interests of the working class, and not by looking to the fascists with an inverted mirror! To give just one example: the French and English fascists also opposed the defense of their fatherland against Hitler in the 1930s. But this did not mean that the Trotskyists wavered in their anti-patriotic position or even joined the camp of Anglo-French imperialism!

The solution must not be that socialists ignore the protest movement against the Green Pass or leave the field to right-wing elements. They must rather join the mass struggle, build an independent working-class movement against the reactionary COVID policy of the governments and fight against the presence of fascists at such activities. The Italian general strike on 11 October and the port workers struggle against the Green Pass are excellent starting points for such a policy.

It is a fact that many workers instinctively recognize the reactionary character of the capitalist state bonapartism and oppose the policy of the COVID Counterrevolution (Lockdowns, social distancing, compulsory vaccination, Green Pass, etc.) In one way or another, the FT comrades are aware of this. But their conclusion is to ignore or play down such working-class opposition against the Green Pass.

In a report about the Italian general strike on 11 October, the FIR/FT comrades don’t mention the fact that several unions raised slogans against the Green Pass and various marches were led by banner expressing such a viewpoint. [21] They rather hush up these facts and claim: “Noticeably scarce or completely absent were any of the “anti-green pass” (vaccine passport) groups. The base unions have rejected the divisiveness the government has been whipping up for months, aimed at pitting workers against each other as “vax” or “no vax.”[22]

The French FT Section Fights against the Green Pass … but is shunned by their comrades!

Our critique of the FT approach to the COVID Counterrevolution would be incomplete if we would not report about the position of their French comrades in Révolution Permanente (RP). As known, there has been also a mass movement against the Green Pass which mobilized hundreds of thousands of people every weekend since July. The RP comrades correctly recognized the fundamentally progressive character of this movement against the “health authoritarianism”. Consequently, they have participated in this movement and fought for an independent working class policy and against the influence of right-wing forces.

They also recognize the reactionary character of the COVID Counterrevolution and oppose its various features. “More than ever in face of government authoritarianism, it is urgent to demand the immediate repeal of the health pass, but also of the state of health emergency, and all the measures and laws against freedom, which aim to become institutionalized, in order to break our resistance, so that we can not wage struggles in the future.” [23]

However, if one looks at the Spanish, the English or the German website of the FT, one will find not a single article about these mass protests and about the approach of their French comrades! It is obvious that the international leadership of the FT has ordered its section to keep quiet about this issue! They reject the more left-wing approach of Révolution Permanente as this is in full contradiction to the international policy of the PTS/FT which opportunistically adapts to the policy of COVID Counterrevolution.

We conclude this essay by calling the comrades of the FT in all countries to open a serious and honest discussion about the character of the COVID Counterrevolution and the necessary strategy for the working class to fight against it. The RCIT – including our new comrades from Convergencia Socialista in Argentina – has a record of analyzing and fighting the COVID Counterrevolution from the very beginning. We would strongly appreciate if we could find agreement with the comrades of the FT and fight together against this strategic attack on the working class and the oppressed!


[1] See on this e.g. the RCIT Manifesto: “Green Pass” & Compulsory Vaccinations: A New Stage in the COVID Counterrevolution. Down with the chauvinist-bonapartist police & surveillance state – defend democratic rights! No to health policy in the service of the capitalist monopolies – expand the public health sector under workers and popular control! 29 July 2021, https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/global/green-pass-compulsory-vaccinations-a-new-stage-in-the-covid-counterrevolution/

[2] Italy: Dockers Prepare for Strike against the Green Pass! Solidarity with this important struggle against the COVID Counterrevolution! 13 October 2021, https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/europe/italian-dockers-strike-against-green-pass/

[3] RCIT: General Strike in Italy on 11 October: An Important Step Forward! Militant unions of the workers vanguard initiate successful mass protests, 12 October 2021, https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/europe/general-strike-in-italy-on-11-october-an-important-step-forward/

[4] PCL: GKN e porto di Trieste, avanguardia e retroguardia, 14 Ottobre 2021, https://www.pclavoratori.it/files/index.php?obj=NEWS&oid=7083

[5] Pro-Palestine Italian port workers refuse to load arms shipment destined for Israel, 15 May, 2021, https://english.alaraby.co.uk/news/pro-palestine-italian-port-workers-refuse-arms-shipment-israel

[6] Sinistra Classe Rivoluzione: Italy: For a mass response to the fascist provocation! 12 October 2021, http://www.marxist.com/italy-for-a-mass-response-to-the-fascist-provocation.htm

[7] For a critique of the IMT’s policy see e.g. Michael Pröbsting: The COVID-19 Global Counterrevolution: What It Is and How to Fight It. A Marxist analysis and strategy for the revolutionary struggle, RCIT Books, April 2020, Chapter V, https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/the-covid-19-global-counterrevolution/

[8] Leon Trotsky: A Program of Action for France (1934), in: Writings of Leon Trotsky 1934-35, Pathfinder Press, New York, 1974, p. 32, https://www.marxists.org/archive/trotsky/1934/06/paf.htm

[9] See on this e.g. Michael Pröbsting: The Great Robbery of the South. Continuity and Changes in the Super-Exploitation of the Semi-Colonial World by Monopoly Capital. Consequences for the Marxist Theory of Imperialism, RCIT Books, Vienna 2013, pp. 331-335, https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/greatrobbery-of-the-south/;

[10] For a critique of the PSTU/LIT’s policy see e.g. Michael Pröbsting: The Second Wave of the COVID-19 Counterrevolution. On the ruling class strategy in the current conjuncture, its inner contradictions and the perspectives of the workers and popular resistance, 20 July 2020, Part 4, https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/global/the-second-wave-of-the-covid-19-counterrevolution/; by the same author: Brazil: Social-Bonapartism of the Lockdown Left in Practice. How the leaderships of the trade unions, PT, PCdoB, the pseudo-Trotskyist PSTU and PSOL sabotage the struggle against the Bolsonaro government, 10 June 2020, https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/latin-america/brazil-social-bonapartism-of-the-lockdown-left-in-practice/

[11] PdAC: Contro gli assalti dei fascisti organizziamo la lotta operaia! Sciopero generale contro il governo Draghi! 10 October 2021, https://www.partitodialternativacomunista.org/articoli/sindacato/sull-assalto-fascista-alla-sede-cgil

[12] Alberto Madoglio: Gobierno Draghi: el balance de los trabajadores, 4 October 2021, https://litci.org/es/gobierno-draghi-el-balance-de-los-trabajadores/

[13] FIR: Italy Is Making a Vaccine Passport Mandatory to Work. Let’s Fight the Employer Association “Cure”! 24 September 2021, https://www.leftvoice.org/italy-is-making-a-vaccine-passport-mandatory-to-work-lets-fight-the-employer-association-cure/. The following quotes of the FIR/FT in this chapter are taken from this statement if not indicated otherwise.

[14] The RCIT has analysed the COVID-19 counterrevolution extensively since its beginning. Starting from 2 February 2020 we have published nearly 90 pamphlets, essays, articles and statements plus a book which are all compiled at a special sub-page on our website: https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/global/collection-of-articles-on-the-2019-corona-virus/. In particular we refer readers to the RCIT Manifesto: COVID-19: A Cover for a Major Global Counterrevolutionary Offensive. We are at a turning point in the world situation as the ruling classes provoke a war-like atmosphere in order to legitimize the build-up of chauvinist state-bonapartist regimes, 21 March 2020, https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/global/covid-19-a-cover-for-a-major-global-counterrevolutionary-offensive/; In addition, we draw attention to our above-mentioned book by Michael Pröbsting: The COVID-19 Global Counterrevolution: What It Is and How to Fight It. See also our very first article on this issue by Almedina Gunić: Coronavirus: „I am not a Virus“… but WE will be the Cure! The chauvinist campaign behind the “Wuhan Coronavirus” hysteria and the revolutionary answer, 2 February 2020, https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/global/wuhan-virus/; COVID-19: The Great Barrington Declaration is indeed Great! Numerous medical scientists protest against the reactionary lockdown policy, 11 October 2020, https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/global/covid-19-the-great-barrington-declaration-is-indeed-great/; Michael Pröbsting: COVID-19: The Current and Historical Roots of Bourgeois Lockdown “Socialism”. Police State and Universal Basic Income are key elements of the new version of reformist “War Socialism” of 1914, 19 December 2020, https://www.thecommunists.net/theory/covid-19-the-current-and-historical-roots-of-bourgeois-lockdown-socialism/. See also a number of Spanish-language articles of our Argentinean comrades: Juan Giglio: La izquierda de la „Big Pharma“, dejó de defender las libertades, 1.10.2021, https://convergenciadecombate.blogspot.com/2021/10/la-izquierda-de-la-big-pharma-dejo-de.html; Juan Giglio: ¿Por qué la izquierda no cuestiona las políticas de la OMS? 8.9.2021, https://convergenciadecombate.blogspot.com/2021/09/por-que-la-izquierda-no-cuestiona-las.html

[15] See on this e.g. Chapter II of the above-mentioned book by Michael Pröbsting: The COVID-19 Global Counterrevolution: What It Is and How to Fight It; see also by the same author: The Police and Surveillance State in the Post-Lockdown Phase. A global review of the ruling class’s plans of expanding the bonapartist state machinery amidst the COVID-19 crisis, 21 May 2020, https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/global/police-and-surveillance-state-in-post-lockdown-phase/

[16] See e.g. Left Voice: A Working-Class Program to Fight the Pandemic, 25 September 2021, https://www.leftvoice.org/a-working-class-program-to-fight-the-pandemic/

[17] Ibid

[18] Ibid

[19] Just over half of Italians support green pass requirement for workers, says study, 14 October 2021, https://www.thelocal.it/20211014/just-over-half-of-italians-support-green-pass-requirement-for-workers-says-study/

[20] See on this e.g. COVID-19: Sweden’s Total Mortality in 2020. Once again, the figures demonstrate that this is a serious but not unprecedented pandemic, 23 January 2021, https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/global/covid-19-sweden-s-total-mortality-in-2020-compared-with-past-years/; by the same author: COVID-19: A Comparison of Historical Data. An analysis of the COVID-19 death figures and those of past pandemics and climate disasters based on data from the World Bank, 19 January 2021, https://www.thecommunists.net/worldwide/global/covid-19-a-comparison-of-historical-data/

[21] See for this our above-mentioned report.

[22] La Voce delle Lotte: Rank-and-File Unions in Italy Take to the Streets, with Strikes and Demonstrations in Dozens of Cities, 13 October 2021, https://www.leftvoice.org/rank-and-file-unions-in-italy-take-to-the-streets-with-strikes-and-demonstrations-in-dozens-of-cities/

[23] Philomène Rozan: Pass sanitaire : le Conseil Scientifique prône sa fin rapide, contre la position du gouvernement, 8 October 2021, https://www.revolutionpermanente.fr/Pass-sanitaire-le-Conseil-Scientifique-prone-sa-fin-rapide-contre-la-position-du-gouvernement

taken from here

Foto: Sylvia John

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